8 Nonius XXX
The Nonius is an
Anglonorman line of horses bred in the formal imperial stud farm in Mezöhegyesh,
but was also spread into Jugoslavia and Romania and into southern
Slovakia. The founder of this line was a stallion named Nonius who was as
a 5 year old, stolen in France during the occupation of the Rossieres stud
farm. Nonius was then sent with other nine stallions to a stud farm in Mezöhegyesh,
which was then an imperial army stud farm. According to the French
documents, Nonius was born in 1810 in one of the stud farms of Calvados in
Normandy out of an Anglonorman mare and sired by a thoroughbred Orion. The
records also show that Nonius was a light bay, 16’ 3.5 hands, had a
large and heavy head with small eyes and long ears, short neck, high and
tall withers, long back that wasn’t well bound in the loins, narrow and
low hindquarters and low set tail. His ribcage wasn’t sufficiently
arched and with short and steep shoulder blade. His stand was narrowed at
the knees in the front and at the hocks behind (X). On account of his
exterior deficiencies Nonius was very seldom used for breeding in Mezöhegyesh.
It was only when it was noticed that his offspring did not inherit his
looks and that they were horses of good endurance, more correct and better
build in form and muscles. He was then bred mostly to Spanish, Lipizzaner
and Kladrubian mares. Nonius senior was quite potent sire; when he died in
1838 he left behind 79 stallions and 137 mares. All of his offspring were
properly named after him with lineage numbers from which the Mezöhegyesh
Stud founded a line after him that from the year 1817 grew to 284
stallions and 3203 mares by the year 1890 (F.Shultz)
| By mixing with other
bloods the individuality of Nonius has refined and changed his progeny
that much, that by the year 1854 were recognized Nonius small and Nonius
large types. Both types of Nonius have same colors, mostly dark bays or
blacks, they have kind character and good temperament, willingness to work
in harness as well as under saddle with good endurance in medium speeds.
The uneven, unbalanced build of Nonius was corrected by frequent
breeding to thoroughbred stallions, which were carefully selected. After
the use of thoroughbred the Nonius gained in refinement and in exterior
resembled the English
type, while loosing his massiveness and becoming
more demanding (harder keeper).
Horses of the Nonius line were bred in Hungary, not only in Mezöhegyesh but also in other private farms like Gödölö. In Yugoslavia the Nonius line spread to Croatia where it was bred in Vulkovar and Kladordiev. In Romania on the stud farm Bontida, in Bulgaria on the stud farm Kabiuk and Klementin. In Bohemia and Moravia this line didn’t catch on, because at that time the more heavier and early type of horse was preferred in the agriculture. Besides they didn’t care for his appearance as well as his out put at work, also they didn’t like the flat ribcage, less muscles on thighs and too straight and short (from the profile) hindquarters (the latter being unfortunately present in many warmblooded horses today).
Ludvik K Stanek a.k.a.
from the 1953 Special Zoo-Technique - Breeding of Horses
Published in 1953 by the Czechoslovakian Academy of Agricultural Science and certified by the Ministry of Agriculture.
Written by: MVDr Ludvik Ambroz, Frabtisek Bilek, MVDr Karel Blazek, Ing. Jaromir Dusek, Ing. Karel Hartman, Hanus Keil, pro. MVDr Emanuel Kral, Karel Kloubek, Ing. Dr. Frantisek Lerche, Ing. Dr Vaclav Michal, Ing. Dr Zdenek Munki, Ing. Vladimir Mueller, MVDr Julius Penicka, pro. MVDr Emil Pribyl, MVDr Lev Richter, prof. Ing. Dr Josef Rechta, MVDr Karel Sejkora and Ing. Dr Jindrich Steinitz.